1.Connect (Hook and Hold) (5 mins)
+ Highlight the importance of a Research Proposal for the application of funds and the approval of the use of equipment for research.
2.Acquire and Make meaning (Receive Knowledge and skills, and understanding learning outcomes) (40 mins)
+ The GPP template contains the following main sections:
(a) Type of research
(b) Category of research
(c) Research Title
(d) Aim, Independent, Dependent, Controlled Variables, Hypothesis
(e) Methods, including:
(iv) Risk Assessment and Management
(v) Analysis of data
+ Students are complete their GPP template downloaded from Google Classroom.
3.Transfer (Formative checks, reflections, etc.) (5 mins)
+ Remind them to print out their research proposals to the teacher by the end of lesson 10.
Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Group Reference: A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / J / K / L / M
A. Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:
[ ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum
[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography
[ X ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals
[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene
[ ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore
B. Type & Category
Type of research: ________________ (Write down one number from 1 to 6)
Category – _____________________ (Write down one number from 7 to 20)
Sub-category – __________________ (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)
Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:
C. Write down your research title:
investigation of the effect of the temperature on the growth of crystals.
D. (a) Aim / question being addressed
A student wanted to find out what temperature is the best for making the biggest crystals.
(b) Independent variable
The independent variable is temperature.
(c) Dependent variable
The dependent variable is the mass of copper sulphate crystals.
(d) Controlled variables
(a) The concentration of the copper sulphate solution used
(b) the total volume of the copper sulphate solution used
(c) the humidity of the environment above the beaker
(d) the mass of the seeding crystal
(e) the shape of the seeding crystal
The hypothesis is the lower the temperature, the bigger is the crystal grown
E. Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)
(a) Equipment list:
- clean beaker (250 ml) x 10
- copper sulphate in powder form
- Bunsen burner
- Weighing machine
- Magnifying glass
- Silica gel
- refrigerator (-10 degree celcius to room temperature)
- incubator oven ( room temperature to 50 degree celcius)
- chopsticks x 100
(c) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection
1. Set up the experiment as shown in the diagram above.
2. Pour 50 grams of copper sulphate crystals into a beaker of 200 ml of distilled water and dissolve it using a stirrer.
3. To ensure that the concentration of copper sulphate is saturated, heat the beaker using a Bunsen flame so that we can dissolve the maximum amount of copper sulphate.
4. When we observe that the crystals cannot be dissolve any further due to heating and stirring, stop the heating process.
5. Pour equal amounts of the copper sulphate solution into 6 different beakers of different amounts. (e.g. 25 ml each)
6. Make sure that the seeding crystals used to make the big crystals are of the same shape by using a magnifying glass to inspect.
7. Make sure that the seeding crystals used to make the big crystals are of the same mass by using a weighing machine.
8. Place the seeding crystals into the 6 different beakers.
9. Place the 6 different beakers into refrigerator and the incubator ovens set according to the temperatures specified.
10. To ensure that the humidity of the space above the beakers remains the same, place a packet of moisture absorber (silica gel) in each of the refrigerator and the oven so as to make sure that the humidity is low. This is to make sure that there is no condensation of water vapour in the refrigerator and oven into the beaker of copper sulphate.
11. Wait patiently for a period of 5 days without disturbing the 6 beakers of copper suphate solution.
12. After 5 days, remove the beakers from the refrigerators or ovens and remove the seeded crystal using a pair of chopsticks carefully.
13. Measure the final mass of the grown crystal using a weighing machine.
14. Repeat the experiment again using a similar setup and measure the average mass of the grown crystal again.
(d) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.
The chemicals used are poisonous. If accidentally consumed, will cause the student to faint or have stomach flu.
Low / Medium / High
Students must wear gloves when carrying out the experiment. Students must not eat or drink during the experiment. Students must wash their hands before and after experimentation.
As the experiments involve heating, there is a risk of fire if the flame accidentally touches any flammable material.
Low / Medium / High
Make sure that there are no flammable materials near the heating apparatus.
As the experiments involve heating, there is a risk of scalding the hand accidently.
Low / Medium / High
Use mittens or thongs when carrying out the experiment
As the experiment involves glassware, there is a risk of breakage and cutting of the hands.
Low / Medium / High
Wear gloves when carrying out the experiment. In case of breakage, the cut to the hands will be minimized.
Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table
(e) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses
1. Tabulate the data and calculate the average mass of the grown crystal.
2. Plot a graph of the average mass of the crystal against the temperature in which it is grown.
3. From the graph, we can find out what temperature is the best for making the biggest crystals. (The aim)
F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.
Holden A. et al (2011). Crystals and Crystal Growing. Cambridge, MA, USA: The MIT Press.
G, S., E, Y., H, K., T, N., S, M., & K, W. (1997). Effects of a magnetic field on the nucleation and growth of protein crystals. Journal of Crystal Growth, 173(1-2), 231–234. doi:10.1016/S0022-0248(96)00777-4
About.com (2013, July 10). How to grow great crystals. Retrieved from
Scientific American (2013). Solubility Science: How to Grow the Best Crystals: A chemistry challenge from Science Buddies. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=bring-science-home-crystals.
Wiki How (2013, July 01). How to Make Salt Crystals. Retrieved from